Professor Nathan J. Brown, Professor of Political Science and International Affairs at George Washington University delivered this year’s Robert H. Litowitz lecture for the Program in Ethics, Politics and Economics. In his lecture, Professor Brown discussed two trends have that grown in ideological force in Arab politics in recent years: one emphasizing popular sovereignty and democratic accountability; the other stressing the divine origin of political authority. Do these operate at cross purposes? And might either trend tame the authoritarian patterns that seem so deeply entrenched in the region?